Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse or mental abuse, is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships, bullying, and abuse in the workplace
In intimate relationships
Main article: Domestic abuse
Domestic abuse—defined as chronic mistreatment in marriage, families, dating and other intimate relationships —- can include emotionally abusive behavior. Psychological abuse does not always lead to physical abuse, but physical abuse in domestic relationships is nearly always preceded and accompanied by psychological abuse. Murphy and O’Leary report that psychological aggression by one partner is the most reliable predictor of the other partner’s likelihood of first exhibiting physical aggression.
A 2005 study by Hamel reports that “men and women physically and emotionally abuse each other at equal rates”. Basile found that psychological aggression was effectively bidirectional in cases where heterosexual and homosexual couples went to court for domestic disturbances. A 2007 study of Spanish college students aged 18–27  found that psychological aggression (as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale) is so pervasive in dating relationships that it can be regarded as a normalized element of dating, and that women are substantially more likely to exhibit psychological aggression. Similar findings have been reported in other studies. Strauss et al. found that female intimate partners in heterosexual relationships were more likely than males to use psychological aggression, including threats to hit or throw an object. A study of young adults by Giordano et al. found that females in intimate heterosexual relationships were more likely than males to threaten to use a knife or gun against their partner.
Numerous studies done between the 1980 and 1994 report that lesbian relationships have higher overall rates of interpersonal aggression (including psychological aggression/emotional abuse) than heterosexual or gay male relationships. Furthermore, women who have been involved with both men and women reported higher rates of abuse from their female partners.
In 1996, the National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, for Health Canada, reported that 39% of married women or common-law wives suffered emotional abuse by husbands/partners; and a 1995 survey of women 15 and over 36-43% reported emotional abuse during childhood or adolescence, and 39% experienced emotional abuse in marriage/dating; this report does not address boys or men suffering emotional abuse from families or intimate partners. A BBC radio documentary on domestic abuse, including emotional maltreatment, reports that 20% of men and 30% of women have been abused by a spouse or other intimate partner
Jodi Arias was not a victim of childhood physical abuse rown GR, Anderson B
Department of Psychiatry, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Tex.
The American Journal of Psychiatry [1991, 148(1):55-61]
Type: Journal Article
Abstract Highlight Terms
OBJECTIVE: To extend the knowledge on long-term effects of childhood abuse in psychiatric patients to a large sample, the authors explored childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult inpatient over 1,040 consecutive admissions.
METHOD: The 947 patients were admitted to a tertiary-care military medical center. Each patient was interviewed, and abuse history, DSM-III-R diagnosis, and other characteristics were recorded.
RESULTS: The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 18% overall: 9% for sexual abuse (with or without physical abuse), 10% for physical abuse (with or without sexual abuse), and 3% for combined abuse. More female than male patients reported abuse. Alcohol use disorders were more common in victims of physical or combined abuse than in sexually abused or nonabused patients. Axis II diagnoses, particularly borderline personality disorder, were more frequent in abuse victims than in nonabused patients. Histories of drug and alcohol abuse were more common in patients reporting physical or combined abuse than in nonabused patients. Suicidality was also more frequent in abused than nonabused inpatient and was noted in 79% of the patients with histories of combined abuse. Combined abuse in women and physical abuse in men were associated with a family history of psychiatric illness, most commonly alcoholism in male relatives.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the need for greater attention to family dynamics, aggressive diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism within the family, and, especially, determination of patients’ abuse histories, even if repeated questioning is necessary.
Jodi Arias was not a victim of childhood abuse, her characteristics of a victim are none existant.
Research has shown that as the frequency of violence increases, so does the risk to the victim of being murdered or murdering her partner (Block, 2003)
Always be conscious of your own safety needs in all interactions involving an abusive person.
Solutions to heal the SOUL
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